Aviation deals with travel by air, specifically in a plane.

Aviation is an appropriate translation given that aviation deals with travel by air, specifically in a plane. The aviation industry is the business sector dedicated to manufacturing and operating all types of aircraft.General aviation may include business flights, air charter, private aviation, flight training, ballooning, paragliding, parachuting,, hang gliding, aerial photography,air ambulance, crop dusting, charter flights, traffic reporting, police air patrols and forest fire fighting.


Aviation in India, broadly divided into military and civil aviation, is the fastest-growing aviation market in the world according to the International Air Transport Association (IATA). The hub of the nation's aviation manufacturing industry is at Banglore which has a 65% share of this economic sector. The government's UDAN (regional connectivity scheme) is driving the growth of civil aviation and aviation infrastructure in India.

The man has always wanted to be able to fly. The dream or although it has achieved, has not been reached yet fully. The fuse of the flight today is much higher than in the past, but is not yet complete. Although they have carried out the steps in the increase of the safety of a ship in flight, there are still many steps to do. For our passengers, but also for our pilots, these brave people and beautiful, it's time to do something in addition, something more. All those who are to get into a ship must be confident that they will fly absolutely without any problems, regardless of the weather, time, climate, brightness, weather conditions, temperature, altitude.

In order to achieve a flight higher quality, it is first necessary to know the history of the flight of the man from its inception up today. The present paper wants to present history human flight, as she was in a vision as realistic as possible. The paper is addressed to in the first place to all those who contributed or still contribute to the achievement of this beautiful dream of the man, the flight. According to Aulus Gellius, Archytas philosopher of the old Greek, a mathematician, astronomers, law and political strategist, was considered that has designed and built around 400 B.C., first artificial device of the flight is self-propelled, a model in the form of bird propelled by an steam boost (an engine with the steamer) used as the reactor with steam, about whom they say he flew effectively to about 200 m altitude.

This machine, named by its inventor " The Dove " , could be suspended on a wire to fly securely on a path of feed. The inventor of the berbers from the ninth century, Abbas Ibn Firnas, is considered by John Harding to be the first attempt of the flight heavier than air in the history of aviation. In 1010 AD, a British (English) monk, Eilmer of Malmesbury, assumed the piloting of a primitive sliding boat from the Malmesbury Abbey tower. It is said that Eilmer flew over 200 m (180 m) before landing and breaking his legs. He later remarked that the only reason he did not fly further was that he forgot to design his flight instrument and a queue, for which he redesigned his aircraft more technically, but his ancestor took Forbidden any other experiments on the grounds that they are bad (Satanic inspiration) and lead to serious accidents.

History of aviation:

The first commercial aviation flight in India took place on 18 February 1911. It was a brief demonstration flight of about 15 minutes from the United Provinces Industrial and Agricultural Exhibition in Allahabad, across the Jumna River to Naini, a distance of 9.7 kilometres (6 mi). The aircraft, a Humber biplane shipped from England specifically for the event, was flown by French aviator Henri HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_Pequet"Pequet and carried 6,500 pieces of mail, making it the first official airmail service. Regular air mail was not established until two decades later, notably by J. R. D. Tata, who was awarded a contract to carry mail in 1932 and founded an airline which grew to become Air India.


According to  Aulus Gellius, Archytas philosopher of  the  old  Greek,  a  mathematician,  astronomers,  law  and  political strategist, was considered that has designed and  built around 400  B.C., first artificial device of the  flight  is self-propelled,  a model  in the  form of bird  propelled  by an steam  boost (an engine  with the steamer)  used as  the  reactor  with  steam,  about  whom  they  say  he  flew  effectively to about 200 m altitude. This machine, named  by  its  inventor  “The  Dove”,  could  be  suspended  on  a  wire to fly securely on a path of feed. 

The  inventor  of  the berbers  from the  ninth century,  Abbas Ibn  Firnas, is  considered by  John  Harding to  be  the  first  attempt  of  the  flight  heavier  than  air  in  the  history of aviation.

In  1010  AD,  a  British  (English)  monk,  Eilmer  of  Malmesbury,  assumed  the  piloting  of  a  primitive  sliding  boat  from  the  Malmesbury  Abbey  tower. It  is

said  that  Eilmer  flew  over  200  m  (180  m)  before  landing  and  breaking  his  legs.  He  later  remarked  that  the  only  reason  he  did  not  fly  further  was  that  he  forgot to design his flight  instrument and a queue, for  which he redesigned  his aircraft more technically, but  his  ancestor took Forbidden any other experiments  on  the grounds that they are bad (Satanic inspiration) and lead to serious accidents.

Bartholomew  of  Gusmão,  Brazilian  and Portuguese,  was an experienced  model aircraft engineer.  In 1709 he  demonstrated an aircraft model in front of the Portuguese  court, but never managed to build a large-scale model. The pilgrims of Rozier,  Paris,  France,  made the first  voyage of  a man  in a  free  balloon (Montgolfière),  built  by  Joseph-Michel  and  Jacques-Étienne  Montgolfier, covering a 9 km flight in only 25 min October 15, 1783. 

On  December  1,  1783  at  Charlieère,  the  pilots  of  Jacques Charles and Nicolas-Louis Robert made the first  flight conducted with the help of a hydrogen balloon. On  September  19,  1784,  at  Caroline,  an  elongated  boat  (specially arranged  after  Jean Baptiste  Meusnier's  proposals  in  the  form  of  a  dirigible  balloon),  he completed  the  first  flight  of  more  than  100  km,  from Paris to Beuvry.

The history of aviation can be divided into six periods.  The epoch of the precursors: Until the beginning of the  seventeenth  century  men  imagined-more  or  less  realistically-what a  flying machine could  be. Then  from  the  end  of  the  eighteenth  century,  this  period  saw  the  beginning of the conquest of the air with the development  of aerostation and numerous attempts of gliding.

The pioneers of the heaviest air: It is the period of the  first  flights of  motor vehicles  capable  of  taking  off  on  their  own.  Almost  every  flight  is  a  first  or  record  attempt:  A  little  faster,  a  little  farther,  a  little  higher.  Aviators are most often designers or adventurers.   The First World War: Only a few years after the first  flight,  this period  saw the  emergence of  a  new weapon on  the  battlefield.  There  is  an  abrupt  shift  to  mass  production,  with  some  aircraft  models even  being built  to  more  than  a  thousand;  the  pilots  become  "professionals", even if the perfume of adventure has not  completely disappeared. 

The end of the First World War put on the  market  a  surplus of pilots and aircraft which enabled the launch of commercial  air transport  and,  in  the  first  place, that  of  mail. Aviation develops and there is the creation of an air  force in many countries. Military aviation drives builders  to  break  new  records.  Advances  in civil  aviation are  a  spin-off  from  military  studies  (Petrescu  and  Petrescu, 2011; 2012; 2013a; 2013b; 2013c; Aversa et al.,  2016a;  2016b; 2016c; 2016d; 2016e; 2016f). 

The Second World War: Aviation is widely used on  the battlefield. This period can be considered the climax  of  planes  using  a  piston  engine  and  a  propeller  as  a  propulsion  means.  The end of  the war  saw  the birth  of  the jet engine and the radar.  The second half of the twentieth century: Once again,  the end of the war put on the market a surplus of aircraft  and  pilots.  This  is  the  beginning  of  the  regular  commercial air transport "all-weather"  able  to free itself  from  weather  conditions  and  to  practice  the  flight  without  visibility.  Military  aeronautics  drives  the  development of the reactor, this is called the era  of the jet  and then  sets  out to  conquer  the  supersonic  flight.

Civilian  spin-offs  allow  the  development  of  the  first  four-jet airliners and air transport is open to all, at least  in  developed  countries  (Crickmore,  1997;  Donald, 2003;  Goodall,  2003;  Graham,  2002;  Jenkins,  2001; Landis and Jenkins, 2005).  The  Wright Flyer  (1903)  is  widely  regarded  as  the  first  aircraft  capable  of  performing  a  controlled  and  controlled  flight.  The  Wright  Flyer  (often  retrospectively referred to as Flyer I or 1903 Flyer) was the  first  successful  heavier-than-air  powered  aircraft. It  was  designed  and  built  by  the  Wright  brothers.  They  flew it four times on December 17, 1903, near Kill Devil  Hills,  about  four  miles  south  of  Kitty  Hawk,  North  Carolina,  US.  Today,  the  airplane  is  exhibited  in  the  National  Air  and  Space  Museum  in  Washington  D.C. (Wright Flyer, From Wikipedia). 

The  Flyer  was  based  on  the  Wrights'  experience  testing  gliders at  Kitty  Hawk  between  1900  and  1902.  Their  last  glider,  the  1902  Glider,  led  directly  to  the  design of the Flyer. The  Wrights  built  the  aircraft  in  1903  using  giant  spruce wood as  their  construction material.  Wings were  designed  with  a  1-in-20  camber.  Since  they  could  not  find  a  suitable  automobile  engine  for  the  task,  they  commissioned  their employee Charlie  Taylor  to build  a  new  design  from  scratch,  effectively  a  crude  gasoline  engine  SNASM  (1899).  A  sprocket  chain  drive,  borrowing  from  bicycle  technology,  powered the  twin  propellers, which were also made by hand.

The  Flyer  was  a  canard  biplane  configuration.  As with the  gliders, the  pilot  flew lying on  his stomach  on  the lower wing with his head toward the front of the craft  in  an  effort  to  reduce  drag.  He  steered  by  moving  a  cradle  attached  to  his  hips.  The  cradle  pulled  wires  which  warped  the  wings  and  turned  the  rudder simultaneously.

The  Flyer's  "runway"  was a  track of  2x4s stood  on  their  narrow  edge,  which  the  brothers  nicknamed  the  "Junction Railroad".  The engine  Wright was  a  little gross, even  after the  standards of the  day. It  had  four cylinders  in horizontal  line.  Bore  of  4  inches,  travel  of  4  inches,  cast  iron  cylinders  match  in  a  cylinder  of  die-cast  aluminum  which  extends  toward  the outside  to  form  a mantle  of  water  around  the  receptables  the  cylinder(SNASM, 1899).

The  engine  was  cooled  by  water  from  a  narrow  vertical water reservoir mounted on a forward strut.  The system was not a radiator in the typical sense, for the  water  did  not  circulate.  The  reservoir  simply  replenished  the  water  jacket  as  the  water  evaporated  from  it.  The  Wright  engine,  with  its  aluminum  crankcase,  marked  the  first  time  this  breakthrough  material  was  used  in  aircraft  construction.  Lightweight  aluminum  became  essential  in  aircraft  design  development  and  remains  a  primary  construction material for all types of aircraft.

The  engine had no  fuel pump, carburetor,  or spark  plugs. Nor did it have a throttle. Yet the simple motor  produced  12 horsepower, an acceptable  margin above  the  Wrights’  minimum  requirement  of  8  horsepower.  Gasoline was gravity fed from a small quart-and-ahalf  tank  mounted  on  a  strut  below  the  upper  wing.  The  gasoline  entered  a  shallow  chamber  next  to  the  cylinders and mixed with the incoming air. Heat from  the crankcase vaporized the fuel-air mixture, causing it to  pass  through  the  intake  manifold  into  the  cylinders (Petrescu and Petrescu, 2011; 2012; 2013a; 2013b; 2013c).

Ignition  was  produced  by  opening  and  closing  two  contact  breaker  points  in  the  combustion  chamber  of  each  cylinder  via  a  camshaft.  The  initial  spark  for  starting  the engine  was  generated with  a  coil  and  four  dry-cell  batteries,  not  carried  on  the  airplane.  A  low  tension magneto driven by a 20-pound flywheel supplied  electric current while the engine was running.

Materials and Methods; the Preecursors

The man probably dreamed of imitating  the flight of  the birds and the legend, such as that of Icarus, or many  apocryphal  tales  claiming  attempts  of  flight  by  men  harnessed with wings and rushing from a man, a tower.  Whatever  their  identity,  they  tried  to  imitate  a  mechanism,  that of  the bird's  wing,  whose  complexity  they did not imagine. The Egyptians already make toys  or models  of balsa wood  with  the ability  to climb  and  hover in the air.  Archytas  of  Taranto  is  credited  with  inventing  a  wooden  dove  capable  of  flying.  Around  1500,

Leonardo da Vinci drew  and proposed several ideas  of  "flying  machines",  but  they  were  based,  for  the  most  part,  on  the  concept  of  swinging  wings  (Fig.  3),  (LDVFM, 2008).

In  1655,  Robert  Hooke,  an  English  mathematician,  physicist and inventor, concluded  that  human flight  was  impossible  without  the  assistance  of  an  "artificial"  engine (Robert Hooke, From Wikipedia).  In 1783, the Montgolfier brothers thanks to the hot  air  balloon  and  Jacques  Charles  thanks  to  the  gas balloon  allow  the  man  to  rise  in  the  atmosphere  but  without  control  of  the  trajectory.  The  solution  will  come from the  study  of  a toy,  the kite, known  in  the  East since  antiquity  but which  will not  be introduced  in  Europe  until  the  thirteenth  century  (Montgolfier  Brothers, From Wikipedia).

Modern  aeroplane  design  is  based  on  thosediscoveries  and on  the  importance of  cambered wings,  also  identified  by  Cayley.  He  constructed  the  first  flying  model  aeroplane  and  also  diagrammed  the  elements of  vertical flight. He designed the  first  glider  reliably  reported  to  carry  a  human  aloft.  He  correctly  predicted  that  sustained  flight would  not  occur  until  a  lightweight engine  was  developed  to provide  adequate  thrust  and  lift.  The Wright  brothers  acknowledged  his  importance to the development of aviation.  William  Samuel  Henson  and  John  String  fellow,  taking  over  Cayley's  work,  have  a  model  of  a  steam  airplane flying. Nevertheless, powerful engines  for real-size aircraft are far too heavy to allow  them to take off.

The First Motorized Takeoff

The  first  man  to  say  he  flew  with  an  engine  is  Frenchman  Clément  Ader, in  command  of  his aircraft.  The reality of  these flights  is discussed,  due  to the lack  of witnesses and the lack of control of its craft.  The first  attempt  took place in 1890 at the command  of the Éole; the marks left by the wheels in the loose soil would  have  presented  a  place  where  they  were  less  marked and would have totally disappeared about twenty  or fifty m. His flying craft would thus have jumped. There  were  no  witnesses  other than  Ader's  employees  and  the same  machine,  tried  before  official  witnesses  in  1891,  gives no other results (Ader Clément, From Wikipedia).  The  following  tests  of  Ader  were carried  out at  the  military  camp at  Satory,  at Versailles,  where a  circular area  of 450  m in  diameter had been  established  for  an official  demonstration.  On  October  12,  1897,  Ader  made a first round on this circuit aboard his Aircraft III.

He  felt  several  times  the  apparatus  leave  the  ground, then resume contact. Two  days later, when  the  wind  was strong,  Clement  Ader launched  his machine before  two  officials  from  the  War  Department  who  said: "It  was easy to see,  from the  wake of  the wheels,  that  the  aircraft  had  been  frequently  raised  from  the rear and that the rear wheel forming the rudder had not been constantly carried on the ground.  The  two  members  of  the  committee  saw  him  suddenly  emerge  from  the  track,  describe  a  half conversion, bow to the side and finally remain motionless (it seems that the wheels no longer have enough grip due  to the sustentation, the pilot lost directional control of his  machine  which  then  came  out  of  the  runway  and  then  reversed under the effect of the wind).

The First Controlled Motorized Flight

After the gliders had developed their gliders between  1900 and 1903, with more than  700  flights in 1902, the  Wright brothers  experimented  with their  first plane, the  Flyer,  in  the  dunes  of  Kitty  Hawk  on  December  17,  1903. The two brothers fly in their turn; they  make four  flights, the last being the longest: Orville flies on 284 m  for  59  sec.  These  flights  are  generally  considered  the first  motorized and  controlled flights  of a  heavier  than  air.  Their  critics,  especially  the  supporters  of  Alberto  Santos-Dumont  and  Gabriel  Voisin,  blame  them  for having needed a rail fixed  to  the ground  and a catapult against  weight  for  take-off,  the  Flyer  being  devoid  of  wheels; the low power of the engine also did not allow  take-off  in  low  wind.  The  inventors'  desire  to  protect  their invention from the 1905 flight of the Flyer III, the  absence of public demonstrations and the low number  of  witnesses  of  their  flights  played a  negative  role  in  their  publicity.  Wright's  mastery  of  the  flight technique  was  later  recognized  during  the  various  demonstrations  that  the  Wright  made  in  France,  notably at Auvours in the Sarthe in 1908. 

Historical  research  reveals  that  the  first  motorized  flight  was  carried  out  by  German  American  engineer  Gustav Weißkopf (or  Gustave Whitehead) in 1899.  The American  journalist  Stella  Randolph  published  a  book  on  this  engineer  in  1930:  Before  the  Wrights  flew  (Before the Wrigths fly) and his work is being confirmed  by the historian of aeronautics John Brown.

The First Controlled  Autonomous Motorized  Flights

Traian  Vuia flew  to  Montesson on  18  March  1906  with a heavier-than air-self-propelled airplane (no launch  mechanism) over a distance of about 12 m at an altitude of one m .   This  flight  ended  in  an  accident,  Vuia  resumed  its tests  that  from  the  month  of July  after  having  repaired  and modified its apparatus. On 19 August 1906 he flew a  distance  of  25  m  at  an  altitude  of  2.5  m  at  Issy-les- Moulineaux (Vuia Traian, From Wikipedia).   Traian Vuia (August 17, 1872-September 3, 1950) was  a Romanian  inventor and aviation pioneer  who  designed,  built and tested a tractor configuration monoplane. He was  the first  to demonstrate  that  a  flying apparatus could  rise into the air by running upon wheels on an ordinary road. He is credited with a powered hop of 11 m (36 feet) made on  March 18, 1906 and he later claimed a powered hop of 24 m (79 feet). Though unsuccessful in sustained flight, Vuia's invention  influenced  Louis  Blériot  in  designing  monoplanes. Later, Vuia also designed helicopters.

By December 1905 Vuia had finished construction of  his  first  airplane,  the  "Vuia  I".  This  was  a  highwing  monoplane constructed entirely of steel tubing. The basic framework consisted of a pair of triangular  frames,  the  lower  members  forming  the  sides  of  the  rectangular  chassis  which  bore  four  pneumatic-tyred wheels, the front pair steerable.  The wing was mounted on the apices of these frames  and resembled  those of  Otto Lilienthal's  gliders, with  a  number  of  curved  steel  tubes  radiating  outwards  from  centres at the apex of  each of the side frames, braced by  wires  attached  to  a  pair  of  kingposts  and  covered  in varnished linen. Pitch control was achieved by varying the  angle  of  attack  of  the  wing.  A  trapezoidal  rudder  was  mounted behind and below the wing. It was powered by a  carbonic acid gas engine driving a single tractor propeller. 

The 25 hp engine had to be adapted by Vuia himself  as  a  suitable  engine  was  not  available.  Liquid  carbon  dioxide was vaporized in a Serpollet boiler and fed to a  Serpollet  engine.  The  fuel  supply  was  enough  for  a  running  time  of  about five  minutes  at full  power.  The  aircraft  was  constructed  for  Vuia  by  the  Parisian  engineering company of Hockenjos and Schmitt.   Vuia  chose  a  site  in  Montesson,  near  Paris,  for  testing.  At  first he used  the machine  without  the wings  mounted so he could gather experience controlling it on  the  ground.  The  wings  were  put  on  in  March  and  on  March  18,  1906, it  lifted  off briefly.  After accelerating  for about 50 m  (160  ft), the aircraft left  the ground and  travelled through the air  at a height of about 1 m (3 ft  3  in)  for  a  distance of  about  12  m  (39 ft),  but  then  the  engine cut out and it came down. 

Caught by the wind it was damaged against a tree. On  August  9  a  longer  hop of  24  m (79  ft)  at  a  height  of  about 2.5 m  (8  ft) was made, ending in  a  heavy  landing which damaged the propeller.   In 1907 Vuia built the Vuia II, using an Antoinette 25  horsepower (19 kilowatts) internal combustion engine. This  aircraft had the same basic configuration as the Vuia I-bis,  but  was  both  smaller  and  lighter,  with  a  total  weight  (including pilot) of 210 kg (460 l b) and a wingspan of 7.9 m (26 ft). Vuia succeeded in  making a  brief powered hop  on July 5, travelling 20 m (66 ft), but damaging the aircraft  and suffering slight injuries on landing (Fig. 10).  Between 1918 and 1921 Vuia built two experimental  helicopters  on  the  Juvisy  and  Issy-les-Moulineaux aerodromes. 

On  October  30,  1908,  Bouy  aviation  took off  from  Henri  Farman  at  the  wheel  of  his  Voisin  for  the  first  inter-city flight.  He  reached Reims after a  17-min flight  and traveled 27 km.   On July 3, 1909, at the Brayelle Airfield near Douai,  the first air show  in the world  took place, Louis Blériot with his monoplane flies 47 km in 1 h 7, Louis  Paulhan with his biplane beats the record of height with  150 m (Blériot Louis, From Wikipedia).

Aviation Is a Major Contributor to Global Economic Prosperity

Aviation provides the only rapid worldwide transportation network, which makes it essential for global business. It generates economic growth, creates jobs, and facilitates international trade and tourism. According to recent estimates by the cross-industry Air Transport Action Group (ATAG), the total economic impact (direct, indirect, induced and tourism-connected) of the global aviation industry reached USD 2.7 trillion, some 3.6 per cent of the world’s gross domestic product (GDP) in 20164. The air transport industry also supported a total of 65.5 million jobs globally. It provided 10.2 million direct jobs. Airlines, air navigation service providers and airports directly employed around three and a half million people. The civil aerospace sector (the manufacture of aircraft, systems and engines) employed 1.2 million people. A further 5.6 million people worked in other on-airport positions. 55.3 million indirect, induced and tourism-related jobs were supported by aviation.

These estimates do not include other economic benefits of aviation, such as the jobs or economic activity that occur when companies or industries exist because air travel makes them possible. They also do not include the intrinsic value that the speed and connectivity of air travel provides, or domestic tourism and trade, as well as foreign direct investment simulated by good air transport connections, which is crucial to developing productive assets for economic growth in the long term. Including these would increase the employment and global economic impact numbers several-fold. One of the industries that relies most heavily on aviation is tourism. By facilitating tourism, air transport helps generate economic growth and alleviate poverty. Currently, approximately 1.4 billion tourists are crossing borders every year, over half of whom travelled to their destinations by air. In 2016, aviation supported almost 37 million jobs within the tourism sector, contributing roughly USD 897 billion a year to global GDP. Air transport is a driver of global trade and e-commerce, allowing globalization of production. The small volumes of air cargo amount to big values in world trade. In 2018, USD 6.8 trillion worth of goods were expected to be transported internationally by air, representing 35 per cent of world trade by value, despite representing less than 1 per cent by volume8 . Aviation’s advantage over other modes of transport in terms of speed and reliability has contributed to the market for “same-day” and “next-day” delivery services and transportation of urgent or time-sensitive goods. Around 90 per cent of business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce parcels are currently carried by air. The e-commerce share of scheduled international mail tonne kilometres (MTKs) grew from 16 per cent to 88 per cent between 2010 and 2018 and is estimated to grow to 96 per cent by 2025.

Aviation Provides Significant Social Benefits

The availability of reliable air transport services provides people with access to what they need: better living standards, food, healthcare, education, safe communities and spaces, etc. Aviation is by far the world’s safest and most efficient mode of long-range transportation. It often serves as the only possible means of transportation to provide health care and food supplies to many remote communities, and it is a fast and reliable way to deliver urgent humanitarian aid during emergencies caused by natural disasters, famine and war.

In remote or peripheral regions, air transport functions as an essential service to provide lifeline connections that otherwise would not be available. Furthermore, educational opportunities are made available to students around the world, especially for those students from developing countries who must travel abroad for higher quality education. Aviation contributes to improving quality of life by broadening travellers’ leisure and cultural experiences. It provides an affordable means to visit distant friends and relatives, and fosters awareness of other cultures.

Sustaining the Future of Aviation

Both air passenger traffic and air freight traffic are expected to more than double in the next two decades. By 2045, passenger traffic will reach over 22 trillion RPKs with a growth of 4.1 per cent per annum, and freight will expand by 3.6 per cent annually over the same time period, to 573 billion FTKs. This growth holds tremendous economic potential, which will support all States in achieving the UN’s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

In 2036, aviation will provide 98 million jobs and generate USD 5.7 trillion in GDP, a 110 per cent increase from 201611.12 The future growth of air transport will likely depend on sustainable world economic and trade growth, as well as declining airline costs and ticket prices. Other factors, including regulatory regimes (such as liberalization of air transport), technological improvements and fuel costs will also impact future growth.

Exponential Growth of Air Traffic

From a long-term historical perspective, air transport has doubled in size every fifteen years and has experienced greater growth than most other industries. Since 1960, increasing demand for passenger and freight services, technological progress and associated investment have combined to multiply the output of the aviation industry by a factor of more than 30. This expansion of air transport compares favourably with the broadest available measure of world output (global GDP), which, when measured in real terms, has multiplied by more than five times over the same period. It is no mystery why air traffic growth has so consistently defied recessionary cycles.

The air transport sector resisted these recessions precisely because it served as one of the most effective tools for ending them an important consideration for governments at every level in a challenging economic environment. In 2018, airlines worldwide carried around 4.3 billion passengers annually, logging 8.3 trillion revenue passengerkilometres (RPKs). Fifty-eight million tonnes of freight were transported by air, reaching 231 billion freight tonnekilometres (FTKs). Every day, aviation moves almost 12 million passengers and around USD 18 billion worth of goods on more than 100,000 flights.

Asia/Pacific remained the largest region of activity with 35 per cent of world traffic measured in revenue tonne-kilometres (RTKs), followed by Europe and North America with 26 per cent and 22 per cent, respectively. Airlines in the Middle East managed 10 per cent of world traffic. The Latin America and Caribbean region accounted for 5 per cent, while the remaining 2 per cent of world traffic was undertaken by African airlines.

Air Travel Affordability

A key driver in the growth of passenger traffic has been the steady decrease in the real cost of air travel a reduction of over 70 per cent since 1970. This decrease in cost has led to an increase in accessibility of air travel democratization (from a pursuit reserved for the wealthy to a part of normal middle-class lives). Air travel is no longer a luxury commodity. It is becoming increasingly accessible in the developing world, with various low-cost travel options available to more and more people.

The aviation industry has undergone a structural transformation and has adjusted to a dynamic marketplace by consolidating and expanding in new markets. The evolution of low-cost carriers (LCCs), particularly since the beginning of the 21st century, is notable in emerging economies, making air travel more affordable. In 2018, LCCs carried an estimated 1.3 billion passengers, which was approximately 31 per cent of the world total scheduled passengers. This indicated an 8.7 per cent growth when compared to the number of passengers carried by LCCs in 2017, around 1.4 times the rate of the world total average passenger growth.

Air Connectivity

The air transport network is dynamic and constantly developing. It is composed of over 1,303 scheduled airlines, over 31,717 aircraft in service, 3,759 airports and 170 air navigation services providers. It is truly a global industry connecting all parts of the world seamlessly. Aviation is a customer-focused economic sector. While there is no single definition of air connectivity, it can be viewed as the ability of a network to move passengers, cargo and mail involving the minimum of transit points, which makes the trip as short as possible with optimal user satisfaction at the minimum price possible. There is increasing evidence that air connectivity growth stimulates productivity, research and development (R&D), foreign direct investment and fosters trade specialization.

Many States have come to understand that air connectivity is an asset, improving the global competitiveness of cities, regions and countries. They try to include aviation projects as a priority in their development strategies and formulate policies.

The Aviation Satellite

Account Notwithstanding the socio-economic benefits brought by aviation, its importance to national economies appears not to be fully understood by States and the public due mainly to the acute shortage of reliable economic information related to aviation. While some research and analysis has been conducted to estimate the economic contribution of aviation, there has been no internationally-agreed standard to measure it. Consequently, the credibility, reliability, robustness and accuracy of such estimations are often questioned and challenged.

ICAO developed a methodological framework for the “Aviation Satellite Account” (ASA) to measure the direct economic impact of aviation on the national economy in line with the System of National Accounts (SNA 2008) adopted by the UN Statistical Commission – an internationally agreed statistical framework for a set of macroeconomic accounts. The term “satellite account” refers to an account that is closely linked to the SNA but is not bound to employ exactly the same concepts or restricted to data expressed in monetary terms. A satellite account covers a specific industry or sector of particular importance to the national economy. Many elements shown in a satellite account are invisible in the national accounts. Either they are explicitly estimated in the making of the national accounts but are merged for presentation in more aggregated figures, or they are only implicit components of transactions which are estimated on an aggregated basis.

Common examples are satellite accounts for tourism, transport, culture, sports, and environment. The ASA consists of a set of tables, including the Supply and Use Tables (SUTs) which are prepared to estimate aviation’s direct GVA and aviation direct GDP, etc. These tables describe: a) how products (goods and services) are brought into the national economy either as a result of domestic production or imports from other countries; and b) how those same products are used (as intermediate consumption, household final consumption, non-profit institutions serving households, general government final consumption, gross capital formation and exports). Other tables in the ASA cover additional elements, both monetary and non-monetary, such as data on employment and indicators of output. States can use the ASA to improve understanding and raise awareness of aviation’s importance relative to an overall economic activity, as well as to highlight the inter-dependencies of aviation with other economic sectors that are involved in the production of goods and services consumed by aviation.uence and enhance connectivity outcomes, so as to achieve a connectivity portfolio that best meets society’s needs.


The air was sucked in at the front by a compressor  and  then  directed  to  a  combustion  chamber  (one  on each side,  at the front of  the  aircraft) which provided  the  thrust.  The  compressor  was  driven  by  a  conventional piston engine and not by  a turbine  as in modern reactors (Coandă-1910, From Wikipedia). The Coandă-1910, designed by Romanian inventor  Henri  Coandă,  was  an  unconventional  sesquiplane  aircraft  powered  by  a  ducted  fan.  Called  the  "turbopropulseur" by Coandă, its experimental engine  consisted  of  a  conventional  piston  engine  driving  a  multi-bladed  centrifugal  blower  which  exhausted  into  a  duct.  The  unusual  aircraft  attracted  attention  at  the

Second  International Aeronautical  Exhibition  in  Paris  in  October  1910,  being  the  only  exhibit  without  a  propeller,  but  the  aircraft  was  not  displayed  afterwards  and  it  fell from  public  awareness. Coandă  used  a  similar  turbo-propulseur  to  drive  a  snow  sledge, but he did not develop it further for aircraft.